articles posted on parts-ring

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  • 3D Printing Store

    ABOUT US

    3D Printing Store.co.za forms part of the 3D Printing Factory (Pty) Ltd Group. We aim to be the biggest one stop shop for 3D printing hardware and consumables in South Africa. Our core values are customer satisfaction, to be known as a supplier with integrity, to develop ...

  • Micro Robotics – Stellenbsoch

    Micro Robotics is a leading supplier of electronic and robotic components for the maker and prototyping market in South Africa. We offer hard to find components from all the major brands. We are an official distributor for Adafruit, Sparkfun, Pololu, DF Robot, Teensy, Beaglebone and various other brands. Our head ...

  • Micro Robotics

    Micro Robotics is a leading supplier of electronic and robotic components for the maker and prototyping market in South Africa. We offer hard to find components from all the major brands. We are an official distributor for Adafruit, Sparkfun, Pololu, DF Robot, Teensy, Beaglebone and various other brands. Our head ...

  • Rabtron

    Operating Hours:
    Monday to Thursday: 8:30am to 4:45pm
    Friday: 8:30am to 4:45pm – Closed between 12:00pm and 2:30pm
    Saturday: 9:00am to 12:00pm(closed on long weekends and public holidays)

    Line of Business: Electronic Components Distributor

    Established: December 1991

    Company Registration Number: 199103430123

    Vat Registration Number: 4730134907
    About Us
    Established in 1991, Rabtron is a ...

  • Promotions Catalogue – p2

     

    Online Parts International

    Promotions Catalogue


    DIY Class A 6J5 HIFI Headphone Amplifier Vacuum Tube Preamplifier Kit

    DIY Class A 6J5 HIFI Headphone Amplifier Vacuum Tube Preamplifier Kit

    Specification:

    Size: 77mm * 75mm (L*W)
    Weight: ...

  • Promotions

     

    Online Parts International

    A very big trend for some time now is for the home DIYer to build his own switched mode power supply.  These power supplies when run from the mains electrical supply if not designed by a professional company which specialises in mains switching circuits can be downright deadly. ...

  • Promotions Catalogue

    Online Parts International

    Promotions Catalogue

    This is an affiliates page which hopefully will pay for the maintenance of this website one way or another.  Having personally tested the Dc-DC 10-32V to 12-35V mobile switcher it works very well – note though that the power supply does not have isolated (-) and ...

  • Core Electronics

    CORE ELECTRONICS – ABOUT US

    Hi, I’m Graham, the founder of Core Electronics. I’m an Air Force Avionics Technician by trade (2004-2016) and electronics has always been my hobby on-the-side. Core Electronics sprang to life in 2007; sourcing innovative DIY electronics for friends from offshore brands. Since then we’ve been powered ...

  • Audio Mart

    At Audio Mart we‘re as passionate about music and performance as our customers and we know that the best equipment is essential for great performances. We have been a driving force in the Professional Sound and Lighting industry in South Africa and continue to drive our industry in Southern Africa.

    ...

  • Kmeasure

    K Measure is a Pretoria-based supplier of electronic test and measurement equipment to the electronic, electrical and automotive engineering industries in South Africa. We supply to the whole of South Africa, from Cape Town to Durban, Nelspruit and Gauteng, and no town is too small for us either. ...

  • Lantis Electronics

    Most important things should be said first: ” I Hendri Ehlers owner of Lantis Electronics am 100% committed to give you,my customer, the best service humanly possible and thats why my phone number is here for you to speak to me.”

    Founded in 1994, LANTIS has built up an impressive client ...

  • KAB Electro Acoustics

    KAB Electro – Acoustics

    KAB serves the record collector and sound enthusiast with products that Preserve, Enhance and Restore. Founded in 1990, The company is driven by a need for affordable restoration equipment and a desire for better sounding, more exciting hi fi.

    We ...

  • Analog Ian – Analogue Equipment New to Vintage

    Analog Ian – “The more it changes, the more it’s the same thing.”

    We have a sister website call Analog Ian – please go there and support us.

    The Analog Ian website

    Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose – Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr (24 November 1808 – ...

  • Akai M8 Schematic – just a simple tube amp

    The Akai M8 Schematic

    Note that we have also details on this marvellous amplifier and deck on our sister website’s pages:  Analog Ian

    So just what makes this tape recorder so iconic? To be honest, I don’t know. Sentimentality definitely. The fact that it has a tube amplifier in it ...

  • Akai M8 Restoration

    As promised we move on to the inner workings of this single motor transport deck and tube amplifiers.

    Note that we have also details on this marvellous amplifier and deck on our sister website’s pages:  Analog Ian

    Restoring an Akai M8

    This tape recorder came onto market about 1965 sometime (

  • Tape Bias – Why and How

    Before attempting to repair any tape deck or RTR one needs to understand one of the most critical aspects to magnetic recording – actually two:

    Tape Bias and the Tape Path

    Although a tape recorder is a relatively simple device there are a few criteria which has to be met to reproduce ...

  • The Revival of the Akai M8

    The Akai M8 Crossfield Head Recorder

    Dedication

    Those who were around in the 1960s will remember the furor caused when this machine came to market. I dedicate this article to my late father Chris whom had one.

    The Akai M8 was not the best machine out there, neither was it ...

  • Tubes and Semiconductors

    Tubes and Semiconductors – the great controversy.

    So you finally decided to take the plunge and build or get yourself a tube (radio valve: UK) and discovered to your amazement all the joy that you had been missing over the last 1000 years.  You may be kidding yourself of course.

    Radio valves ...

  • DIYElectronics

    Our Story

    DIYElectronics, a specialist electronics business armed with three generations of unrivaled knowledge and expertise in the electronics industry, was born in 2013. We were born with the aim of providing quality hardware, electronics and support at the best possible prices to the public. Our vision is to drive innovation ...

  • The True advantage of Arduino

    The Arduino – changing the perspective of electronic thinking!

    For any fifty something whom studied electronics sometime in the 70s there’s going to be a big gray area in their knowledge of digital circuits unless they studied further in the 80s and 90s.  The analogue mindset still remains and as many ...

  • Electronics Stores – getting Durban on the map

    Electronics Stores – Durban

    Recently having moved from Cape Town to Durban I have been rather surprised at the lack of electronic stores.  This especially in a region where we have predominantly Indian youngsters whom gravitate towards electronics and IT in general.

    electronics stores - heathkit

  • Bullshit Baffles Brains – the Dunning-Kruger Effect

    The triple B factfinder’s column – Bullshit Breakfast Club

    Google has unwittingly inspired many armchair wannabes to become experts in most fields, specifically dominating the IT, mechanical and electrical engineering industries but having its origins we believe in politics.

    The ability to write well, stick a bun on the back of your ...

  • The Danger of Autonomous Cars

    Autonomous Cars – embracing the inevitable

    Let’s face it, we all dream about it but know it can’t happen – a self driving car! Yet, this is on the cards. Mercedes, Kia, Toyota, Ford, Audio, BMW, Volvo, you name it, they all have a car which can drive autonomously. “Not on ...

  • Audio Amplifiers – Passed the Edge

    On the Edge – amplifier design

    Isn’t it frustrating to shop for the ultimate sound system on a limited budget. You see one, you hear one and that one on the next rung up always sounds that little bit better.  Fortunately we have good news. It’s all in the mind.

    Anyone being ...

  • Worlds Safest Cars – ever

    NCAP Vs Driver Safety Vs Safest Cars on the Road

    Although there is no doubt that cars with high safety standards are a feather in the manufacturer’s cap it can also be said that many argue about the reliability of some of these cars and indeed, gauging by the number ...

  • Do computers make us lazy?

    How to become lazy by doing things!

    “We often miss opportunity because it’s dressed in overalls and looks like work” – TA Edison

    Loading the latest piece of freeware that looks like AutoCAD but isn’t I was enthralled by the complexity, the genius of the software engineers and the ease of use. ...

  • Africa – Our state of manufacture

    Manufacture – the art of production without slavery

    History, if left unchecked has a nasty habit of repeating itself. In the case of Africa this may very well be good news. From our young schooling days we learnt about slavery, the bad guys and the good guys. Depending on which side ...

  • Vehicle reliability statistics – are they reliable?

    Reliability statistics – a dodgy dump of grievance

    About ten years ago my sister-in-law phoned her husband frantically telling him that her engine had just fallen out of her Renault Modus. It was a protection cowling. She now drives a Spark.

    Wiki: Reliability in statistics and psychometrics is the overall ...

  • Aisin Warner AW55-50SN and AW55-51SN Transmissions

    Japanese Aisin Seiki – American Borg–Warner

    The Aisin Warner AW55-50SN and AW55-51SN automatic gearboxes are used in a wide array of motor vehicles on the roads today and gauging by the amount of complaints they should never have been manufactured or at least they should have been replaced by a better ...

  • Racing engines – gas to electric

    Noisy engines versus silence in a Formula E

    A question recently posed by a colleague in our electronics prevalent industry was in which direction motor racing was going with the current V6 technology in formula one as opposed to the formula-E which many technologists believe is the future. From a personal ...

  • Who makes that Auto Part?

    Why are my auto parts not made by Mercedes?

    Damn, this is getting silly!  Almost every motorcycle or car website has a forum which complains about one specific model car (or motorcycle) which was a lemon. Either the engine or transmission is a dud. Then we have the electronics. That model ...

  • Breaking the bank for an Automatic Gearbox

    Automatic Gearboxes – are they really all that unreliable?

    There has been a lot of controversy surrounding the reliability of automatic transmissions over the last five years, not least the semi or manual automatic. In a survey done of the numerous forums covering the steady migration of drivers over to automatically ...

  • Drinking water through Desalination

    The desalination of seawater needs to be re-invented!

    Interestingly enough, whilst scientists can put man on the moon, split the atom and build driverless cars we just cannot cope with the water shortage. We can create distilled water from permeable membranes and a vacuum desalinator but it’s never enough or just ...

  • Why Demerit Points don’t work without Insurance

    Demerit Points – How to achieve a lot more awareness

    So there’s an article here that states the the demerit point system does work and I would like to give my version of what I saw and know having worked in the traffic services for close on twenty years ...

  • My third blog post title

    Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, ...

  • Oil – where to use and what to use

    Not all Oil is created the same!

    In a previous article and on the many forums there have been many debates as to which lubricant to use in your car and although the engine lubricant needs to be dumped and refreshed every 3 000 to 10 000 miles many owners neglect ...

  • Volvo – the Forums

    Volvo – Resources

    As a small continuation to our previous article, Automatic Transmissions – Customer complaints we have added in some of the top Volvo forums to assist owners find solutions to their out of warranty motor vehicles.



     

     volvoforums
  • Automatic Transmissions – customer complaints

    Automatic Transmissions – are they all useless?

    I recently purchased a 2006 Volvo 2T automatic. It left the showroom floor and the next day the transmission service light came on. I was really pissed off – the dealer is closed until the 11th January and only then will they look at ...

  • Forum Registration – Online Parts

     The Parts-Ring Forums

    A place for everyone to meet, greet and socialise.  The core rationale behind the Parts-Ring website, forums, business registration and listing is to assist anyone looking for a part. Over the next month the website is going to be souped up with an online search facility for those ...

  • The Driver Demerit System – a proven international standard

    The Driver Demerit System – does it work?

    Why?

    This article is not necessarily about the now but the then and is strictly opinion based. Feel free to comment.

    AARTO and the driver demerit system

    In the Republic of South Africa the AARTO (Administrative Adjudication of Road Traffic Offences) and driver demerit points system ...

  • WP Motors

    HOME OF NO DEPOSIT

    WP Motors | Bellville

    W.P Motors is a family owned business that was established in 2001. We were previously known as Auto Supreme and operated under that name Between 1978 and 1995 with over 30 years experience in the 2nd hand Market.

    We specialize in No Deposit deals.

    We specialize ...

  • Gruntwork out of headlight lens cleaning – Headlight Restoration Kit

    Headlight Restoration Kits – fact or fallacy

    Motor vehicles coming into their second or third year and sitting in baking conditions are going to show some residual colouring of the outer part of polycarbonate lens over the headlights. This is a result of UV. Although your polycarb headlight lenses are protected ...

  • Sensors and Actuators

    Making sense of the millions of sensors

    If there is one industry which is flourishing in modern times it is within the manufacture of sensors and actuators. We may live in the digital age but at some point we will need to measure analogous data, whether X-axis, Y-axis, Z-axis positions, temperature, ...

  • Computing is all in the Cloud

    The Cloud is The Future

    Sir Charles Darwin, head of the National Physical Laboratory and grandson of the famous naturalist wrote in 1946 that “it is very possible that one machine would suffice to solve all the problems that are demanded of it from the whole country.” Although Thomas Watson, IBM ...

  • The Parts-Ring Forum

    Hosted by Online Parts International

    Please go to the official Forum pages here! – this is a very new forum. Expect new categories, comprehensive list of suppliers and DIY information.

  • Android and the OS wars

    No losers as Android competes against two heavyweights

    Recently at a software developer’s conference there seemed to be a glut of professionals discussing the downfall of Linux. I found this strange, not because we will always have the great divide, those for all OS and those for Microsoft but because Linux ...

  • Probe Batteries

    The Complete Power Package

    An Associate Company of Ukhamba Holdings

    Established in 1963
    Main focus was Auto Electrical Services and has now been expanded to batteries, starters, alternators and auto electrical components, automotive safety lighting, engine cooling, LED tail and work lights, CCTV for trucks and earthmoving equipment.

    We are Direct Importers, Wholesalers ...

  • Hearing damage and high powered sound equipment

    Self infliction hearing loss

    Frightening to think that 50 years back 10W per channel for a stereo system was classified as loud in a fairly large room whilst today 100W is merely entry level. The audio enthusiasts, and there are virtually millions of them, are no longer satisfied with just 200W ...

  • Lead-Acid Starting and Deep-Cycle Batteries

    An elementary look at the lead-acid cell

    The most common rechargeable or secondary cell used in car batteries is the lead-acid variety.  Even with the curb on hazardous substances, or RoHS, these still remain the most used battery in auto, marine and leisure.  Although so common there remains some disturbing misunderstandings ...

  • The secret to living off the grid

    Can one live entirely off the Grid?

    Like it or not we have a world-wide shortage of power. In India and South Africa regular power outages have become the norm. Inverter and generator sales are going through the roof.  However, getting off the grid is not always that simple.

    Genset driven UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supplies)

    UPS and Generators (marriage made in hell)

    The harsh reality of many gensets used in the home is that they will enable switching between mains and battery of a line interactive uninterruptible power supply.  This will inevitably cause eventual shut down of the UPS when the battery becomes exhausted or low ...

  • Fall in line with Geek Speak and BBB

    Geek Speak and the Triple B

    In a previous article we covered the internet of things which to sum it up really means interconnectivity. Possibly using the TCP/IP protocol. Financial news correspondents love using phrases which are meaningless, maybe your broker as well. Fancy terms are either lost on the audience ...

  • Line Voltage Regulators

    [CAUTION: This article is in response to a reader’s mail. It’s a guideline – there many ways to skin a cat. We do not have nine lives – take caution. We will not be held responsible for incorrect wiring, circuitry and/or modifications that our readers carry out themselves. ...

  • Power Inverters – the real thing

    Inverters and UPS

    Buck, boost, invert, batteries and PWM – where does all this fit in?

    [Editor’s note – this article covers the emphasis of the use of inverter circuitry inside UPS systems. There are many different types of UPS systems available in the market, some only powered ...

  • Stereo Systems vs Multi Channel

    Why do we still want stereo systems?

    Recently an elderly reader sent a personal email to us complaining about all the parasites chasing him at the AV stores trying to sell him a 7.1 sound system when all he wants is good quality stereo.  Well here’s the good news – he’s ...

  • The Power of Two

    Power Amplifier Kits

    For builders of electronic audio kits there is a plethora of stock been advertised either from the East or Europe. Whilst I am sure many of these kits are good quality, with a few exceptions, buyers should be cautious of the overzealous power ratings advertised. A case in ...

  • The Internet of Things

    The Internet or Nothing

    Is IoT another load of hype coming your way? Do you talk to your toaster?

    An interesting fact about the web over the last 20 years has been how it has grown to be the single most used tool along with the laptop, home computer or Smart Phone ...

  • Honda CBX 1000

    A collector’s bike -the Honda CBX 1000

    Like the first landing on the moon, the Honda CBX 1000 was as exciting and as intimidating. Sharing the road test in a local newspaper as a picture of Britt Ekland (I think it was 1978, my first big screen actress crush), both looked ...

  • Electronic circuits – projects listing

    AF, Video Amplifiers, Timers, Light Control, Arduino, Raspberry Pi Circuits

    Rediscover electronics as a hobby and link to this page for every circuit known to mankind. Unfortunately as we all know, links come and go, pages may become obsolete or links inactive without us having the time to amend. Also, most ...

  • Workshop Tools – try these at home!

    Tools – what to buy?



    Having worked both at home and professionally with spanners, screwdrivers, drilling machines, milling machines and lathes all my life there is no greater emphasis on you get what you pay for.  I won’t go into detail as to which brands to veer away from ...

  • The OBDII Test – not the Messiah

    OBDII Test – First tier diagnostics

    Intriguing to read about all the hype regarding onoard diagnostic testers and wondered how it went this way. One thing is for sure, the OBDII tester in the hands of an incompetent mechanic can do more harm than good.  It cost me $4 000.00 after ...

  • Air Crash Investigation – are all pilots now unsafe?

    Air Crash – bad news travels faster than a jet liner

    With the tragic loss of the Germanwings Airbus A320 last week airlines are scrambling to change their policies with regards to minimum requirement of crew in the cockpit at any one time. Experienced airline pilots are baffled by this.  It’s ...

  • An Express Guide to the Motorcycle Wiring Harness

    Looms and the Motorcycle wiring harness

    We spruce up our wheels, add aftermarket kits, get more horsepower, polish until the paint comes off but the wiring harness is the most neglected part of the motorcycle. What to do, what to do.

    Schematics  and wiring diagrams

    Motorcycles and automobiles share one thing in common ...

  • Studio Desk – drawings and design

    Studio Desk – workstations in progress

    A common request on the forums is for plans to build a recording studio desk for the amateur or professional musician or recording engineer. Whilst there are many desk designs to choose from we have added a list of links which more or less covers ...

  • Top Gear – Eco trashbag of Political Incorrectness, we love it!

    Top Gear tries to cull The Voice of Reason

    There has been a lot of fuss about Jeremy Clarkson’s suspension by the BBC recently. Amidst all this, BBC are losing a fair share of revenue in this new venture. Whilst I applaud their stand against an employee whom punched a colleague, ...

  • What exactly are fuel cells?

    Fuel cells – water, water, everywhere

    After labouring over rechargeable batteries and believing that just possibly the Lithium Ion cell with all the modern advancements in technology thrown at it may be king we have the fuel cell, in some cases the PEMFC or the use of Rechargeable batteries – The weak link (part one)

    Rechargeable batteries – Lithium Ion is King

    Through the years there has been huge progress in the manufacture of lightweight high density batteries. Much of modern day tech is around the Li-ion or Lithium Ion battery with Sony being the first company to commercialise rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Sony was also the ...

  • Energy Losses from Utility to Home

    Energy losses – The great DC versus AC debate

    (Editor’s Note:  This article is not written to disprove any theories about AC transmission lines. We need to be a lot more skeptical about talking DC when the advantages and disadvantages of DC and AC were known about more than ...

  • Gadgets for 2015

    Gadgets – further exploration needed

    Forget about gadgets for men, forget about gizmos for women, or kids for that matter – how about some wizardry for dogs?

    One that caught our eye was the Dual Doggie Pet Leash found on Amazon for about $35.  I have ...

  • The Steam Engine – the way to the future

    The Modern Steam Engine – Rankine and Schoell

    There has always been a fascination about steam engines. Kids had them, adults dreamed about them, engineers built them and scientists re-invented them. In some countries they are still indispensable in the transport process. Nintendo may have pushed the steam engine off the ...

  • Heat pumps vs Solar heating


    There has been much written about heat pumps in lieu of solar energy, many believe that the best is to have both.  The question here is which do you prefer and how much do you save?

    In our own research there are many in favour of heat pumps ...

  • Motorcycle Parts – a DIYer’s nightmare

    Motorcycle Parts – A cowboy’s wet dream

    Elsewhere on parts-ring.com, Chinese Motorcycles – getting the facts straight, we covered the ever increasing popularity of Chinese imports. An interesting article, along the same lines can be found on Inventors in 2015

    Inventors? So what’s the story?

    Many influential people are calling for more manufacturers, more education and more innovation. The biggest problem most 3rd world countries face is not just lack of venture capital and education but pure stability. On top of this, on a global level, we have this pessimist’s wet ...

  • RCF Ayra 8 – Italian Studio Monitor

    RCF Ayra 8 – from pro-audio to prosumers

    We live in exciting times, none more so than in the pro-audio world. There seems to be a smaller line now been drawn between the pro and consumer market, many products now being sold as prosumer,  a little play on words but which ...

  • Chinese Motorcycles – getting the facts straight

    Chinese motorcycles – why the controversy?

    Not that many years back the Japanese brought out motor vehicles for the export market which were scoffed at by the press and general motorists. Toyota started selling so many that they started manufacturing overseas. They still do. Just like Nissan. Then came the Honda ...

  • Generators – Diesel, petrol, AVRs, ATS and AMF

    Generators – what to do and what to get?

    With most of the first and third world energy problems raising it’s ugly head more just a few times over the last few years it’s not surprising that many are turning to alternative means of energy:  PV cells, batteries, inverters, grid and ...

  • Advanced Motor Vehicles – what the future holds

    Advanced Motor Vehicles – from ECUs to ADAS

    Modern vehicle technology has become increasingly more sophisticated, simple buttons and switches belie the complex analogue and digital circuitry hidden beneath steel, metal and plastic. In the 1970s CDI and electronic fuel injection were slowly becoming mainstream and it was not long thereafter ...

  • Consumer Goods – the cost of buying cheap

    Consumer Goods – there is no free lunch

    Whilst a great many consumers are very price conscientious, many fall foul of the two most common traps – unknown grey imports and street peddling. Have you ever heard of anyone buying a bargain on the street corner? I doubt it. One of ...

  • The Global Top Semiconductor Companies

    Top Semiconductor Companies – 1) Intel 2) Samsung 3) TSMC  (May 2014)

    Now that we have just added Texas Instruments to our business listing ( about time) it also made us think about the top semiconductor companies in the world. What direction are they taking ...

  • Texas Instruments

    Texas Instruments is known to be one of the most ethical companies globally. TI = Think.Innovate

    About TI:
    TI is a global semiconductor design and manufacturing company.
    Operating in 35 countries
    Serving more than 100,000 customers worldwide
    Innovating for nearly 85 years
    More than 100,000 analog ICs and embedded processors, along ...

  • Quality Audio Preamplifiers – the INA217 and NE5534

    Imagine paying U$5 000.00 for a stereo pre-amplifier? Ever notice how the more exotic brand names carry a hefty price tag?

    The INA217 is sterile – rightly so!

    The one thing that amazes me in the audio wars and also based on forum topics is why we have a jaundiced eye on ...

  • Asus Xonar U7 and Focusrite Scarlett 18i20

    Asus Xonar U7 – adding a touch of class to your notebook audio

    Although we do not as a rule do comparison tests it was interesting to get a contributor write in whom had purchased both the Asus Xonar U7 and the Focusrite Scarlett 18i20 external audio interfaces. Here are his ...

  • Mains Transformers – Finding an economical source

    Where to Buy Mains Transformers

    So now you have built your circuit and need a cheap mains transformer to power it. The bad news is that even ‘cheap’ transformers are no longer found on the supplier shelves. By cheap, I mean more economical alternatives. For smaller circuits the tendency is for ...

  • What is a Gainclone Amplifier

    What is a Gainclone Amplifier?

    Although this is an old topic it shows no signs of disappearing off the map.  Wikipedia describes it as such: “Gainclone or chipamp is a type of audio amplifier made by do-it-yourselfers, or individuals interested in DIY audio. It is a design based on high-power integrated ...

  • Mars Amps

    Mars Stereo kits

    If you prefer to build your own audio gear, rather than buy ready built units, you are at the right place.

    We cater for the first time solderer as well as the seasoned DIY’er.

    Our kits come with schematics and layouts to guide you through the assembly of your self ...

  • Car Speakers in Home Systems

    Car Speakers and Home Systems – a match made in hell?

    A very common topic on the forums is whether a car speaker can be used in a home system. My own experience is a simple “why not!”.  It all depends what you have and how you intend to use it. ...

  • Audio Interfaces – Expansion of home theater systems

    Stand alone audio interfaces: Flexibility is King

    Ever found yourself in dire need of a schematic for an ADAC, an analogue to digital to analogue converter. Preferably USB, HDMI and multichannel analogue in/outs. The great news is that you can purchase them on eBay but the bad news is if you ...

  • Pro Audio – paying the price for what you don’t get

    Part One

    Pro Audio – buying something to last….

    When one buys any power tool you’ll find that the warranty does not usually cover it being used in a professional environment, so if you are a carpenter, electrician or builder you need to pay that extra to get something for heavy duty ...

  • Vintage Electronics – Schematics and Suppliers

    Vintage Electronics – the road left behind

    I always envy people whom spend thousands of dollars on high end audio equipment in search as always for the best sound. Nowadays there’s a trend towards vintage audio. I do not know what drives this because it encompasses valve/tubes, semiconductors and always analogue, ...

  • Guitar Effects, stompboxes – suppliers

    Stompboxes – Guitar Effects

    This article is based on my own research on the web and snippets of building my own projects. Separating facts from opinions can be quite a challenge but one thing is definite, there’s lots of information on the net, lots of schematics, tons of opinions and buying ...

  • Balanced Lines and Attenuators

    Balanced Lines and H-Padsbalanced lines

    Anyone doing audio work is going to come across balanced lines in long cable runs for either input or output and having a degree in radio technology is the best way to start but in ...

  • PAIA Corporation

    About PAiA
    Various PAiA Images PAiA is a leader in the development of kit products for the musician and electronic experimenter. The love of technique drives us to create for others, and to share what we have learned. Entertainment, encouragement and education are our goals. Our company both creates its ...

  • Low Voltage Tube Circuits

    Some Low Voltage Tube Circuits

    Doing research on the web it’s not surprising to find the many thousands of requests covering circuits which utilise the starved plate technique. As mentioned previously, I am not an advocate of this approach but it does work well – as long as you do follow ...

  • Starved Anode – Electron Tube practices

    Current Vs Voltage in an amplifier using Starved Anode

    The electron tube or radio valve is a voltage controlled device with a very high input impedance and output impedance dependent on configuration of output mode, common grid, common anode or common cathode. What puts it sometimes “off-limits” to the casual experimenter ...

  • Electronic Marvel – Electron Tubes

    Resilient, Reliable but not eco-friendly – that’s the electronic marvel of the last and current century – the vacuum tube.

    Through the last 100 years the biggest breakthroughs in thermionic tube or valve designs were the multi-electrode devices, from triode, to tetrode to pentode and of course the multi electrode hex-heptodes. ...

  • Vintage amplifier schematics

    Tube amplifier and add ons – Schematics

    Electron tubes or radio valves, whichever and whatever way you say it is becoming increasingly popular in the world of sound. Although costing more than their solid state brothers, by keeping to tried and trusted rules, purchasing with your head and not your heart ...

  • DIY tube Amp kits, parts and accessories

    Tubes, Sockets, Transformers and Kits

    For those wanting to build their own tube amplifier or looking for parts to complete a project please find below a listing of dealers and manufacturers of tube amplifiers world-wide. The business listing on Parts-Ring may also list these dealers. This listing may not be exhaustive ...

  • Tube Transformers – Output, Filament and Power

    Tube Transformers – Why you may stick to solid state.

    Many more DIYers are building thermionic tube amplifiers now than ten years back, possibly through hype or possibly nostalgia. They certainly have their place and in one area where they seem to be getting mass appeal are pre-amplifiers, headphone amplifiers and ...

  • An Eye on Technology – for Optometrists

    The Sun was designed by a Dermatologist – the Tablet by an Optometrist

    Now that the World Cup is on us again, satellite and cable TV sales must be quadrupling which hopefully will see an increase in internet bandwidth worldwide – if you aren’t watching this on your tablet in real ...

  • Tube specifications – Mho and Mu

    Thermionic Tube Specifications – from Mu to Miller

    Going through the millions of audio equipment ads posted on eBay I’m surprised that China or Russia don’t start building new tube tooling equipment – it’s become quite evident that there is just no rival to the sound of vacuum tubes. From highly ...

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