Background: The main advantages of HDMI, high definition multimedia interface, over standard analog video transmission is that it is 100 % digital from source to display. However, transmitting HDMI over long distances is not so easy. In this article we will describe some of the issues encountered during HDMI transmission and present a solution that can significantly […]



Seagate Technologies’ web site now indicates the company offers data recovery services. Further investigation shows the shipping address, the place to send your subject drive for data recovery service, actually belongs to ActionFront Data Recovery. Many may already be aware of this little tidbit, to others it may be a surprise. When asked about their arrangement Seagate?s […]



If your drive fails do not give the drive to someone whom has had no prior experience of recovery. This is a fate worse than death. Drive recovery MUST be performed by someone whom knows the mechanics involved. If you are old enough to remember the old cassette decks from years back you will remember the horrific effects […]



[Editor’s Note – I liked this article, short and to the point. Something we must never forget is that this is a military development from the USAF. Procedures dictate that in a time of war US military can and will use this to their advantage.  There are other navigational systems which were very popular before the GPS and even when SatNav started becoming popular – Decca, Loran C etc. I’d love to see some comments about this].

The Global Positioning System, or GPS is a constellation of twenty four (24) active satellites and three (3) additional backup satellites. The GPS system was developed and implemented by the United States Air Force (USAF) for operational reasons, and has since become world wide phenomenon, used by hikers, outdoors men, and a vast array of commercial uses.

GPS works on the principals of Triangulation. Satellites send signals down to the earth, which are triangulated by the GPS receiver unit giving you your current location. In order to acquire your current location a receiver unit requires at least three satellite signals to extrapolate your location, though more is desirable. It is not uncommon to have your receiver pickup four to seven signals in any given location.

The GPS Satellites send out two signals: 1575.42 MHz – The Course Acquisition Signal (CA) 1227.6 MHz – Precision Signal (P)

All users, military or civilian are allowed to use the Course Acquisition signal, however the Precision signal is only used by the military, and gives much greater accuracy. The signals are closely monitored and audited by several stations, however the master station for GPS is located in Colorado Springs, USA, at Falcon Air Force Base (AFB).

Problems with the GPS System: Unfortunately due to the very low signal strength (around -127 dBm) GPS receiver units are often unable to acquire a good signal if you are in an area of dense foliage or under a heavy tree canopy. The GPS signal is also unable to penetrate most solid items, and requires a view of the sky to be effective. Use in deep canyons, or inside large cities with tall buildings will cause reduced satellite acquisitions and thus less accuracy or no triangulation at all.

Since GPS receivers have become so mainstream people seem to have thrown away the map and compass which could be a dangerous mistake. GPS receivers are an electronic unit and have the potential to fail, cold climates, batteries, dropping it could leave you lost. A GPS is a wonderful tool, however it shouldn’t be a replacement for the old map and compass.

Fun and Games: There are a lot of great uses for GPS receivers, from marking your favorite fishing spot, to GeoCaching! A standard GPS receiver is between 100-250 dollars and can be used to give you your speed, average speed, set waypoints (mark your favorite spots), record tracks where you have been and can be loaded maps of different regions around the world. They are a great tool for hikers, campers, and outdoor enthusiasts and can help foster a healthy outdoor activity for you and your family.

Ken Dennis

http://KenDennis-RSS.homeip.net/



“If you are going to do something, be the best”
Ginichi Kawakami, Yamaha Motor Company First President.

Yamaha Motorcycles, under this motto, employing all its creativity, and with a very strong spirit of challenge, became what it is now: one of the biggest players in the worldwide motorcycling scene.

But Yamaha’s history doesn’t start with motorcycles…

It is back in 1877 that Torakusu Yamaha started with the Nippon Gakki Company that later would become Yamaha Corporation: an important manufacturer of fine musical instruments.

As the company grew, they explored several fields of opportunity in the textile industry and others.

During the World War II, the company set up a factory to produce airplane propellers. This plant played an important role in Yamaha’s entry to the motorcycle industry as you will see.

After the war, Yamaha Corporation had to find new ways to use the tooling and experience that had been accumulated during their times in the airplane industry, and it was then when Yamaha Motor Corporation was founded.

It’s important to mention that even though this new company was just another branch of Yamaha Corporation, it was placed under an independent management. In this case, under the guidance of Ginichi Kawakami; which turned out to be a brilliant move.

Before producing their first motorcycle, Ginichi Kawakami traveled a lot establishing what would be very useful relationships. He also sent out his engineers to Europe and had them learn how to build motorcycles, particularly from DKW; whom with they kept an underground and unofficial long lasting relationship.

One proof of this is that nowadays, the only two manufacturers in the world of mass-produced five side-valve engines are Yamaha an Audi (DKW – Auto Union).

One of the most important legacies from this international relationships were all the skills learnt by Yamaha’s engineers on two stroke engines know-how. Other manufacturers as Suzuki would not reach the same level of development in this area till seven years later.

Not to wonder why the first bike from Yamaha Motorcycles the 125 YA-1 was fairly a faithful copy of the 1949 DKW RT 12. The only two important differences were the four speed gearbox instead of the original three speed gearbox, and a gear transmission replacing the primary chain drive.

IMPORTANT MODEL FROM YAMAHA MOTORCYCLES

>>> Yamaha YA-1

Even though the Yamaha YA-1 – baptized “Acatombo” (Red dragonfly) by its fans – had “nothing in special” and was more expensive than its competitors, it almost immediately became a great success.

It was reliable: before putting it into the market, the prototypes were tested along 10,000 miles of rough rides . Even the big boss himself, Ginichi Kawakami, rode the bike without any incident from Hamamatsu to Tokyo.

It was beautiful: with this model Yamaha was the first manufacturer to put special attention to the decoration of the motorcycle. This task was given to GK Design in Tokyo. It’s worth mentioning that this firm has designed the “look” of most Yamaha motorcycles to date.

It was fast: the YA-1 obtained excellent overall results in the most important local races of that time: Mount Fuji (third place) and Mount Asama (first place).

In fact it was this aggressive attitude in the sporting world that helped Yamaha Motorcycles gain fast acceptance even though they made a late start in the motorcycle scene (in comparison to Honda and Suzuki).

In other words: Yamaha Motorcycles showed the world they had arrived to be considered good and fierce competitors from the beginning. Particularly to Honda and Suzuki.

Other important models from that time were:

>>> The Yamaha YD-1 (the competition for the Suzuki TP of that time)

Some technical specifications:

Yamaha YD-1

15 hp 70 mph. 185,000 yen

in comparison to:

Suzuki TP

18 hp 80 mph. 195,000 yen

>>> The Yamaha YDS-1

The dream bike of all young Japanese between 1959-1960.

Some technical specifications:

20 hp 333 lbs. 85 mph.

Direct rival of the Honda CB72

Since then, the history of models and victories goes on and on…

Today, Yamaha Motorcycles is one of the major players in the worldwide motorcycling scene.

Just to give you an idea of how important Yamaha Motorcycles have become:

– The 2004 Moto GP was won by excellent rider Valentino Rossi on a Yamaha motorcycle.

I could go an and on writing about Yamaha Motorcycles, victories, challenges and models but I would need a whole book?

So to learn more about Yamaha Motorcycles, I invite you to visit this page: http://www.yamaha-motor.com/products/mcy/epic/epic_home.html You will find a pictorial history of Yamaha Motorcycles from 1955 to 2001.

Enjoy the ride!

Daniel Levy

Daniel Levy is the owner and contributing writer of http://www.Japanese-Motorcycles-Only.com . He loves motorcycles and Web development. For more great info visit http://www.japanese-motorcycles-only.com/

Ezine:  http://www.articlesaz.com



The story of Kawasaki Company goes back to 1924, at that time involved into metallurgy and the aircraft industry.

In 1949, they decided to enter the motorcycle industry producing engines that could be adapted to motorcycles.

FIRST KAWASAKI MOTORCYCLES PRODUCTS  Motorcycle Engines

In their line you could find a 60 cc two-stroke, as well as a 150cc and a 250cc four-stroke engines developed with technology from BMW; company whom with they had had relationships since their beginnings in the aeronautical industry.

It wasn’t until 1954 that Kawasaki Motorcycles produced their first complete motorcycle under the name of Meihatsu (a subsidiary of Kawasaki Aircraft Co.).

Almost at the same time, they also tried to introduce their own line of scooters to the market, but they soon realized they couldn’t compete against the two giants of the scooters industry for those days: the Fuji Rabbit and the Mitsubishi Silver Pigeon.

And now before continuing with Kawasaki Motorcycles history, I have to open a big parenthesis?

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE HISTORY OF KAWASAKI MOTORCYCLES

We cannot talk about Kawasaki without mentioning another make that will definitely help Kawasaki become as well as Honda, Suzuki, and Yamaha one of the big players in the Japanese Motorcycles scene:

–> Meguro Motorcycles: better know in that time as the “senior make and the king of four strokes”.

Meguro entered the motorcycle industry in 1937. Having a good relationship with the government, the people at Meguro took advantage of the army orders.

Their first motorcycle was the Z97: a 500cc rocker-valve motorcycle influenced by the Swiss Motosacoche. It’s worth mentioning this model was a success for the factory and the Z97 was in production till the fifties.

Along the years, Meguro produced some very nice 250cc and 350cc rocker-valve, single cylinder models as well as high performance twins. All of them with a very strong British influence. Then and thanks to the commercial success they were living, they also launched a rocker-valve 125 cc for their low end range and a twin cylinder 650cc to accompany the already existing 500cc.

But it was in 1958, when Meguro tried to get rid of their British influence, when things started to go wrong…

Based on a winning prototype of Mount Asama (one of the biggest races that time), Meguro Motorcycles produced three nice and elegant machines with overhead camshaft: the 125cc E3, the 250cc F and the 350cc Y A. Unfortunately these bikes turned out to be too heavy and didn’t get the buyers’ attention. Meguro will soon return to rocker valve models.

Meguro Motorcycles remained as one of the top 10 manufacturers till 1960, but due to some bad decisions, as the ones mentioned above, the company started to decline and was soon bought by Kawasaki.

In 1960 Meguro signed an initial agreement with Kawasaki Motorcycles, and in 1962 they had completely disappeared.

?.And this brings us back to Kawasaki Motorcycles…

In 1960, the company decides to give a serious push to the motorcycle division of Kawasaki Aircrafts:

They take out of the market the Meihatsu brand, they build their own plant of low end and low powered machines and buy Meguro.

These brilliant moves and decisions made Kawasaki Motorcycles have one of the widest range of models in the market. Kawasaki Motorcycles could offer at that time (1960’s) from a 50cc moped-scooter to a powerful, high end and beautiful 650 cc twin cylinder motorcycle.

Its also important to mention that due to their very own nature, Kawasaki Motorcycles has always played the role of Maverick in the industry and that a feeling of independence from their main competitors has always been present.

Since then, many stories have been written, many models have been produced and many races have been won on Kawasaki Motorcycles, the truth is…

Nowadays Kawasaki Motorcycles is one of the major players in the industry and following their tradition, they nowadays offer a wide range of products for all kind needs and likes.

You can also take a look at Kawasaki 2005 line-up . Check this page: http://www.kawasaki.com/motorcycles/

Enjoy the ride!

Daniel Levy @ www.Japanese-Motorcycles-Only.com

Note from the author:

Do you own a Kawasaki or any other Japanese motorcycle? Why don’t you send me your picture and your story, I would happily add it to this site.

Just go to my email address above and drop me a message. I will get in contact with you ASAP.

Daniel Levy is the owner and contributing writer of http://www.Japanese-Motorcycles-Only.com . He loves motorcycles and Web development. For more great info visit http://www.japanese-motorcycles-only.com/

ezine:  http://www.articlesaz.com



Started in a small warehouse by Michio Suzuki back in 1909, Suzuki aimed at making better looms for the Japanese silk industry. It was only thirty years after its existence that the company started thinking of diversifying into cars, motorcycles and related machinery. In fact, it was only after the collapse of the cotton market in 1951, that Suzuki seriously got into the motorcycle and car industry.

One of the first two-wheeled innovations by Suzuki was a motorized bicycle called the “Power Free”. This bicycle was so ingeniously designed that the government of Japan gave Suzuki a subsidy in order to continue their research in motorcycle and car innovation. As time progressed, the company started to build better and better motorcycles. And by 1962, Suzuki Motorcycles had won their first 50cc Grand Prix World Championship.

By the late 60s, the company had become known and respected in the American and European motorbike world. One of their best-selling machines during this time period was the Suzuki X-6 Hustler, which was the fastest Japanese 250cc for that time.

Suzuki Motorcycles also gained fame in the motocross world. In the 60s and 70s, motocross racing was largely dominated by European motorcycle manufacturers. Japanese motorcycles did not have much of a presence or respect in this arena, but during this time, Suzuki Motorcycles won the World Championship several times between 1971 and 1976 in the 500cc MX race. In addition to this, the company also won every 125cc world championship from 1975 to 1984.

By the late ?80s, Suzuki had gained the respect of all within the racing community at the highest levels. One of the best Suzuki Motorcycles of this era was the GSX?R750. Its design and energy was unbeatable and, at that time, it was the lightest bike around in its class.

The Suzuki GSX-R was without any doubt one of the most important and influential motorcycles of the 80s. Even now, twenty years later, you will find the GSX?R line in Suzuki Motorcycles current catalog. In fact you will find it in several sizes ranging from 600cc to 1000cc.

Since the GSX?R750, Suzuki Motorcycles has come with many other successful models and today, Suzuki is a well-known name in the Motorcycling world . The company has won over a dozen World Championships along with many other races. Their long-standing emphasis on innovation as well as their meticulous care in craftsmanship has lead the company from strength to strength for more than 50 years.

For all this Suzuki is now one of the four big names in the Japanese motorcycles industry. If you are planning in buying on changing your ride, their models must be included in your list of possibilities.

Enjoy the Ride!

Daniel Levy

Daniel Levy is the owner and contributing writer of http://www.Japanese-Motorcycles-Only.com . He loves motorcycles and Web development. For more great info visit http://www.japanese-motorcycles-only.com/

Ezine: http://www.articlesaz.com



A transformer consists of two or more coils wound on the same core. For power transformers, the core material is usually iron. For a radio-frequency transformer, the core material is usually ferrite or air. The basic property of a transformer is to change AC voltage. A transformer cannot change direct current voltage. A step down transformer has […]



In monitor power supply where pulse width modulation (pwm) ic UC3842 are used. Pin 3 of this power ic is called I-sense which means current sense and this pin is connected to source pin of POWER FET. The purpose of this current sense circuit is for overcurrent protection. This circuit usually samples the voltage drop across a […]

Translate »
Top